Colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the colon or rectum, which are parts of the digestive system. Surgery is a common treatment option for colorectal cancer, and it may involve removing all or part of the affected colon or rectum, depending on the stage and location of cancer. Surgical procedures for colorectal cancer can be broadly categorized into two types: open surgery and minimally invasive surgery. Open surgery involves making a large incision in the abdomen to access the colon or rectum, while minimally invasive surgery involves making smaller incisions and using specialized instruments and cameras to perform the operation. The choice of surgical approach depends on various factors, including the stage and location of cancer, the patient’s overall health, and the surgeon’s experience and expertise. In addition to removing the cancerous tissue, surgery for colorectal cancer may also involve reconstructing the digestive system or creating a stoma, which is an opening in the abdomen for waste to exit the body.
There are different types of surgeries available, including laparoscopic (lap) surgery, open surgery, and robotic surgery.
Laparoscopic surgery involves making several small incisions in the abdomen to insert a laparoscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light at the end. The surgeon uses the laparoscope to view the inside of the abdomen and remove the cancerous tissue. Open surgery, on the other hand, involves making a larger incision in the abdomen to remove the cancerous tissue.
Robotic surgery is a newer technique that uses a robotic system to assist the surgeon during the operation. This technique offers improved precision and visualization compared to traditional open surgery.
The surgical approach for treating rectal cancer depends on the location and stage of the cancer. For tumors in the right colon, a right hemicolectomy is typically performed, which involves removing the right side of the colon. Similarly, for tumors in the left colon, a left hemicolectomy is usually performed, which involves removing the left side of the colon. However, for tumors in the rectum, different surgical procedures are used. An APR (abdominoperineal resection of the rectum) is performed for lower rectal carcinoma, which involves removing the entire rectum and creating a permanent stoma. This surgery is usually reserved for patients whose tumors are too low in the rectum for other surgical approaches. A LAR (low anterior resection of the rectum) is performed for low rectal tumors, which may involve creating a temporary stoma. An AR (anterior resection of the rectum) is performed for upper rectal cancers that do not involve the stomach. In this surgery, the upper part of the rectum is removed, and the remaining rectum is reattached to the colon. The choice of surgical approach for rectal cancer depends on several factors, including the location and stage of cancer, the patient’s overall health, and the surgeon’s experience and expertise. To know more, book your appointment now with the leading surgical oncologist.