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Colorectal Cancer: Latest development, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment recommendations

Colorectal Cancer Awareness is an opportunity to raise awareness about this type of cancer that affects both men and women. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and the second most deadly. It is estimated that around 1.8 million new cases of colorectal cancer get diagnosed every year, with approximately 900,000 deaths.

What is Colorectal Cancer?

Colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the colon or rectum, which is a part of the digestive system. It typically starts as a growth on the lining of the colon or rectum, which can develop into a cancerous tumor over time. Colorectal cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the liver, lungs, and bones, through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing colorectal cancer. These include:

The risk of developing colorectal cancer increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.

Family history:
People with a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps are at a higher risk of developing the disease.

Lifestyle factors:
A diet high in red or processed meat, low in fruits and vegetables, obesity, and physical inactivity are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

Smoking and alcohol consumption:
Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption can increase the risk of colorectal cancer.


The early detection of colorectal cancer is crucial for successful treatment. Screening tests can help detect precancerous polyps or early-stage cancers before symptoms appear. Screening tests include:

A procedure in which a doctor examines the entire colon and rectum with a flexible tube equipped with a camera.

Fecal immunochemical test (FIT):
A simple test that checks for hidden blood in the stool, which can be a sign of colorectal cancer.

A procedure in which a doctor examines the rectum and lower colon with a flexible tube equipped with a camera.

Virtual colonoscopy:
A non-invasive test that uses CT scans to produce images of the colon and rectum.

Fecal occult blood test (FOBT):
One common screening test for colorectal cancer is the fecal occult blood test (FOBT). This test detects tiny amounts of blood in the stool that is not visible to the naked eye. This blood can be a sign of cancer or other digestive problems. The test is simple, non-invasive, and can be done in the comfort of one’s own home. FOBT is a valuable tool in the fight against colorectal cancer, as it can help identify the disease in its early stages when treatment is most effective.


Colorectal cancer treatment depends on the cancer stage and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be necessary.

is a common treatment for colorectal cancer, and there are different types of surgeries available, including laparoscopic (lap) surgery, open surgery, and robotic surgery.

Laparoscopic surgery
involves making several small incisions in the abdomen to insert a laparoscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light at the end. The surgeon uses the laparoscope to view the inside of the abdomen and remove the cancerous tissue.

Open surgery,
on the other hand, involves making a larger incision in the abdomen to remove the cancerous tissue.

Robotic surgery
is a newer technique that uses a robotic system to assist the surgeon during the operation. This technique offers improved precision and visualization compared to traditional open surgery. Ultimately, the choice of surgical approach depends on the stage and location of cancer, the patient’s overall health, and the surgeon’s experience and expertise.


According to a report published by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in India, with an estimated 45,000 new cases each year. It is also a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the country. The symptoms of colorectal cancer can vary depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Some common symptoms that Indian patients may experience include:

Changes in bowel habits:
This may include diarrhea, constipation, or a change in the consistency of stool.

Blood in the stool:
This can be bright red or dark, and may be mixed with the stool or seen on the toilet paper.

Abdominal pain:
This can range from mild discomfort to severe cramping.

Bloating or gas:
This may be accompanied by a feeling of fullness or pressure in the abdomen.

Unexplained weight loss:
This can occur even without changes in diet or exercise.

It’s important to note that many of these symptoms can be caused by conditions other than colorectal cancer, but it’s still important to get them checked out by a doctor. In general, it’s a good idea to be aware of any changes in your bowel habits or any other unusual symptoms and to talk to your doctor if you have concerns.

In addition to being aware of the symptoms, it’s also important for patients to undergo regular screening for colorectal cancer, especially if they are over the age of 50 or have a family history of the disease. Screening tests can help detect colorectal cancer early, when it’s easier to treat and has a better chance of being cured. As mentioned above, some of the common screening tests include fecal occult blood tests, colonoscopies, and sigmoidoscopies.

In conclusion, patients should be aware of the symptoms of colorectal cancer and should undergo regular screening to help detect the disease early. If you are experiencing any unusual symptoms or have concerns about your risk for colorectal cancer, then meet the best oncologist and robotic surgeon in Assam.
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